The estimation of water hardness as applied to boiler water and other water is great interest for the chemical industry in general.the determination of water hardness has always been an especially important factor in the manufacturing control of sugar industry, pharmaceuticals, food processing, leather, gums, adhesives, textiles etc.

Temporary hardness is determined by finding the alkalinity of water before boiling and that left after boiling. This is because temporary hardness is removed on boiling.

Ca(HCO3)2    ——–>   CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
Mg(HCO3)2    ——–>   Mg(OH)2 + 2CO2

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Practical to Determination of Temporary Hardness of water sample by O’ Henner’s method

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Determination of Temporary Hardness of water sample by O’ Henner’s method – Chemical Practical
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