Pure water is neutral in nature with pH 7. Due to the presence of dissolved minerals in rain water, the pH increases and becomes alkaline. Alkalinity in water is due to the presence of hydroxide (OH), carbonate (CO3) and bicarbonate
Eriochrome Black T is a complexometric indicator that is used in complexometric titrations, which is mainly used to determine total hardness of Water. In the below photo you can see that in its deprotonated form, Eriochrome Black T is blue. It turns red when
An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an op-amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically hundreds of
In half-wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, mean voltage is lower.
In electronics, a Schmitt trigger is a comparator circuit with hysteresis implemented by applying positive feedback to the non-inverting input of a comparator or differential amplifier. It is an active circuit which converts an analog input signal to a digital
In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates, or rocks. The paste, composed of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine (small) and coarse (larger) aggregates. Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the
Concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates, or rocks. The paste, composed of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine (small) and coarse (larger) aggregates. Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the paste hardens and gains
The importance of concrete in modern society cannot be overestimated. Look around you and you will find concrete structures everywhere such as buildings, roads, bridges, and dams. There is no escaping the impact concrete makes on your everyday life. So
Coarse aggregates are particles greater than 4.75mm, but generally range between 9.5mm to 37.5mm in diameter. They can either be from Primary, Secondary or Recycled sources. Primary, or ‘virgin’, aggregates are either Land- or Marine-Won. Gravel is a coarse marine-won
Concrete is an ancient material of construction, first used during the Roman Empire. Concrete today is a sophisticated material to which exotic (foreign) constituents can be added and, with computer-controlled batching, can produce a product capable of achieving 50,000 psi compressive strength.